1.What is second language acquisition?
2.What is Language Acquisition?
3.What are differences acquisition and learning?
4.What are the second language acquisition barriers?
5.When is the best age to learn second language?
6.What is considered proficient in second language?
7.What is the ultimate goal in acquiring a second language and how does this affect at what age it is taught?
8.How an adult amnesia acquire second language?

1.SLA is as the way in which people learn a language other than their mother tongue, inside or outside of a classroom.

2.Language acquisition is the study of how a person learns a language. In a baby this would be how they develop their communication and speaking skills. Sometimes it can refer to second language acquisition, which means how a person learns a second language.
3.The term acquisition is used to refer to picking up a second language through exposure whereas the term learning is used to refer to the conscious study of a second language.
4.Acquisition barriers:
1.Syntax structure.
4.Semantic concepts.
5.Lenneberg in vansikle proposed that natural language acquisition through exposure can only happen during the critical period (ages 2-puberty).Before age 2 the brain has not developed enough, and after puberty it is has developed too much, with the loss of “plasticity” and the completion of “lateralization” of the language function. While in The Brian Plasticity Hypothesis: Hypothesis: A child brain is plastic in comparison plastic in comparison to that of an adult, and after the age of about 9 after the age of the brain years, the brain progressively becomes “stiff and rigid. ”The child develops a conditioned The child develops a conditioned reflex “turn from one language to the other without confusion, translation or a mother translation or a mother- -tongue tongue accent.Lateralization:As the brain matures, certain functions are assigned to either the left or right hemisphere.Upon the completion of lateralization, it is believed to be difficult for learners to acquire fluency and authentic “native-like” pronunciation in a second language.
6. Children are considered fluent when they can communicate at a level appropriate for their age. An adult must communicate with other about much more complicated issues, where deficiencies in vocabulary and syntax show more readily. more readily.” Reading, writing, speaking and listening are all important factors in language acquisition. Adults are expected to be more competent than children because of age and maturity, and “adult” conversations may vary greatly from those of children. ”
7.The ultimate goal of acquiring second language
According to (Ausubel, 1964 in Vansickle) Adults have a much greater vocabulary and Conscious grammatical generalizations while the age of second language taught; Some research has shown optimal ages around 7-8 years and 10-12 years, and Scovel (1999) in Vansickle suggests that Younger=Better is a myth supported by the media and “junk science.”

8.Amnesia is losing their long-term memory but their short-term memory and their ability to speak and understand are entirely unimpaired. So they able to acquire second language as well as normal peoples.

Amnesia Is The Main Moduler. Posted September 29 2011. Accessed. 18 October 2011. Available online at inside-the-brain.com.
Ellis. R. (1986). Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford University Press
VanSickle, Julia & Ferris, Sarah. (No Year). Second Language Acquisition the Age Factor. Avaolable online at lilt.ilstu.edu/rlbroad/teaching/.../smith.pdf

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Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) as a methodology was first proposed in England in the 1970 (Ozsevik, 2010.p.1). This methodology was regarded as revolutionary since it placed an essential emphasis on communication in language learning classrooms. Being primarily an ESL (English as a second language) methodology, it rapidly gained a widespread acceptance in the Western countries. Following the emergence of CLT in English-speaking countries, it began to spread all over the world. Signifying the new and being endorsed as a reaction against the traditional language teaching methodologies, CLT has served as a major source of influence on English language teaching practice in both ESL and EFL (English as a foreign language) environments.
Although CLT to be well known approach, there have been controversial views on the appropriateness, as well as the feasibility of implementing CLT in EFL contexts. Some ELT (English language teaching) scholars have accentuated the significance of the local needs and the conditions of the particular EFL contexts, and the benefits of the traditional methods of language teaching (Bax, 2003; Harvey, 1984; Incecay & Incecay, 2009 (Ozsevik, 2010.p.1) Nevertheless, the majority of the ELT scholars have advocated the idea that neither of these extremist positions will benefit English teaching and learning in Asian contexts, (Ozsevik, 2010.p1.)
Many approaches and methods has been applied in teaching such as the Translation Method, the Situational Language Teaching, the Audio-lingual Method, the Communicative Language Teaching, and other approaches although with less influence which can also give us much inspiration. All of them were once quite the rage, but till now, the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is more and more popular and becoming the mainstream in the second language teaching classroom, (Yuan. 2011). although have controversial and resistance of CLT from education stakeholders. While they oppose It spreads widely and constantly develops.
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is an approach to the teaching of second and foreign languages that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language. It is also referred to as “communicative approach to the teaching of foreign languages”. (elt.wikia.com)
Bearing all these issues in mind the study aims to draw a clearer picture of communicative language teaching. It will be carried out through the following questions:
1. What are the controversial issues to stakeholders (teachers, students, school administrators, parents) in implementing communicative language teaching (ELT) as an approach?
The significance of this study is to know and identify the problems of CLT to stakeholders and identify the characters and methodology of communicative language teaching for English foreign language teachers.

2.1. Brief view of communicative language teaching (CLT)
According to Chomsky’s (in Savignon, 2002) the characterization of the linguistic competence of the ideal native speaker and, distinction between competence and performance, proposed the term ‘‘communicative competence’’ to represent the ability to use language in a social context, to observe sociolinguistic norms of appropriateness. Hymes’s (in Savignon, 2002). ‘‘communicative competence’’ can be seen as the equivalent of Halliday’s ‘‘meaning potential.’’ Similarly, Hymes’s focus was not language learning but language as social behavior. In subsequent interpretations of the significance of Hymes’s views for learners, methodologists working in the United States tended to focus on the cultural norms of native speakers and the difficulty, if not impossibility, of duplicating them in a classroom of non natives. In light of this difficulty, the appropriateness of communicative competence as an instructional goal.
Communicative language teaching derives from a multidisciplinary perspective that includes, at the least, linguistics, psychology, philosophy, sociology, and educational research.(Savignon, 2002)
The communicative approach could be said to be the product of educators and linguists who had grown dissatisfied with the audio-lingual and grammar-translation methods of foreign language instruction.
The origins of Communicative Language Teaching are to be found in the changes in the British languages teaching tradition dating from the late 1960s. Interest in and development of communicative style teaching mushroomed in the 1970s; authentic language use and classroom exchanges where students engaged in real communication with one another became quite popular.

a. The Principal Characteristics of CLT
The role of the instructor in CLT is quite different from traditional teaching methods. In the traditional classroom, the teacher is in charge and "controls" the learning. In CLT the teacher serves as more of a facilitator, allowing students to be in charge of their own learning.
Language is used for communication. For this reason, CLT makes use of communication to teach languages. CLT emphasizes real-life situations and communication in context. While grammar is still important in the CLT classroom, the emphasis is on communicating a message.
Social Context
CLT also stresses social and situational contexts of communication. In CLT, students learn about language in social contexts, such as the difference between speaking with an elder and a peer. (Li Shengxi)
Comparison of Different Teaching Method
Method Teacher’s Roles Learner’s Roles
Situational language Teaching Context Setter
Error Corrector Imitator
Audio-lingualism Language Modeler
Drill Leader Pattern Practicer
Accuracy Enthusiast
Total Physical Response Commander
Action Monitor Commander
Action Monitor
Community Language Learning Counselor
Paraphraser Collaborator
Whole Person
The Natural Approach Actor
Props User Guesser
Suggestopedia Auto-hypnotist
Authority Figure Relaxer
Communicative Language Teaching Needs Analyst
Task Designer Improviser
Resource: Li Shengxi, hand out)
1.2. Controversial to Educational Change

In education the term controversial often couples up with change. In fact, controversial marks open or hidden opposition to a change issue for the purpose of stopping or slowing it down for self-conservation measures. As such, controversial is a strategic device put forward by the resistant who is not convinced enough or who does not perceive the benefits or the nature of change. In the literature, many factors are said to bring about controversial in the educational field (Rogers, 1995. Fullan, 1991, Graeme & Kevin, 2002 in Drame). The following ones will be mentioned for illustrative purposes:
1. Misunderstanding of the change context;
2. Lack of interaction and communication;
3. Inadequate training and development;
4. Inappropriate instructional materials/input;
5. Violation of social, cultural, behavioral norms;
6. Fear of the unknown;
7. Loss of control, social status or power;
8. High operating costs;
9. Time constraints;
10. Etc.
Given these factors, how does controversial operate in an educational context? If the school is taken as "a change unit" as suggested by Muncey & McQuillan in Drame 2004, controversial can operate at three overlapping levels: (a) the school, (b) the classroom and (c) the individual stakeholder.
1. The school level
At this level, school administrators often argue against change on the grounds of curriculum constraints, school environment and equipment, school rules and regulations, exams requirements and standards, shortage of rooms, large classes, time-tabling problems, etc.
2. The classroom level
Very often, teachers and students hide behind the following factors in order to resist change (Tsui, 1996 in Drame): syllabus specifications, class size, classroom physical context, instructional materials, activity/task types, students' learning modes, learning styles, the school head's management style, etc.
3. The stakeholder level
As argued earlier, stakeholders always have different interests in any educational change project. So, they usually fall into different pressure groups ready to fight their interests to prevail over others. These struggles can, sometimes, be aggravated by social, cultural or professional differences or conflicts which must be taken into account. Therefore, both change agents and stakeholders are advised to ponder over these words of wisdom: "The road (to change) won't always be easy and everyone won't always agree which path to take when the road forks... but with mutual respect, honest work and understanding that we all have to live with the results, we can get where we need to go". (Ellsworth, 2000:3 in Drame 2004).
According to researched of Drame, 2004. He have two questionnaires research instruments to know the resistance of teachers and students in applying communicative language teaching: one destined to English teachers and the other to students of different levels and streams. Both questionnaires aim to assess teachers’ and learners’ perceptions of communicative language teaching in their working situations. In the teachers’ questionnaires, respondents are requested to spell out their standpoints with regard to identified potential sources of resistance by ticking one of the boxes ranging from: strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree. As for students, their questionnaire aimed to rate activity effectiveness (I learn very much; I learn much) or ineffectiveness (I learn little; I learn very little) among the most currently used ones.

2.2 Results of Drame, research Instruments for teachers' and students questionnaires in Dakar. Senegal

There were 66 teachers took part in the study. Here teachers are asked to say whether they have positive perceptions (strongly agree; agree) or negative perceptions (disagree; strongly disagree) of areas identified as being potential sources of resistance. Below are the results of their responses expressed in percentages.
Results of teachers’ questionnaire
No Potential sources of
resistance Teachers’ positive perceptions of identified sources of resistance
Teachers’ negative perceptions of identified sources of resistance
1 Problem with materials
68.93 % 31.07%

2 Inadequate training
59.09 % 40.91%

3 Unsatisfactory working conditions
56.92 % 43.08%

4 Students’ resistance
52.27 % 47.73%

5 Insufficient command of
40.1 % 59.9 %

6 Resistance from other
interested parties
38.64 % 61.36 %

7 Other factors (please specify)See teachers’comments

Grand total 56 % 44 %

With an overall percentage reaching 56 % surveyed teachers have strongly sided with
Potential sources of resistance identified in the questionnaire. Yet, with opposing views rating up to 44 %, they have also sent a strong message to say that resistance also stems from sources different from the ones identified in the questionnaire. A close look at the results shows clearly that teachers blame resistance partially on the problem of materials which tops all the others with 68.93 %. This high rate just indicates that teachers are far from being satisfied with existing materials which are well below communicative standards while with 59.09 % just behind materials development, training and development is still a great source of worry.
The working conditions take the third position in this survey (56.92%). From the teachers’ point of view, students’ resistance to CLT is also quite high (52.27 %) and it holds the fourth position in the survey. With 61.36 %, teachers have rejected significantly the idea that resistance only stems from the sources identified in the questionnaire. In their mind, resistance comes also from other interested parties: parents, school administrators, students and some teachers. The latter seem to doubt the capacity of CLT to make the students meet the exams standards. Yet, they do not seem to blame it on CLT as an approach but on its side effects in a foreign language context and the mismatch between classroom procedures and exams formats (Baccalaureat, BFEM in Drame).
1.3. The result of students questionnaires
Analysis of the results of students questionnaire in Drame shows clearly that they are favorable to communicative methodology (63.36 %), yet by rejecting 36.64 % of the questionnaire suggested activities they also want teachers to know that some of their activities are not as effective as they believe they are. Nevertheless, it is surprising to see that 'writing grammar exercises' takes the first place on top of the other activities (86.4 %.). The foreign language context may explain this because they believe that to know a language is to know the grammar of that language. Another surprise comes from the third position held by the item 'correcting mistakes' (80.8 %).
It is interesting to note that students seem to prefer 'pair work' (80 %) to 'group work' (70.4 %). With a gap of 10,4 % the difference is significant enough to be meaningful. Here students seem to say that they like group work as an activity but they dislike its side effects: noise, time waste, chat, local/first language(s) use, social/psychological difficulties, etc. This is why they prefer 'pair work' which has proven to be more effective in overcrowded classes. By holding the second position (85.6 % ), 'information sharing' and co-related issues (information processing, information transfer) demonstrate that students are not against communicative methodology. Yet, a close look at rejected activities shows for example that students do not think they are learning effectively when they are engaged in activities like: 'interpreting diagrams' (69.6 %), 'drawing' (65,6 % ), 'improvising' (59.2 %), 'dramatising' (58.4% ), 'working with maps' (54.4 %), and singing songs (53,6 % ). These results show that surveyed students are not bodily-kinaethetic learners (they do not like improvising, dramatising, singing songs, dancing), nor are they spatial ones (they do not like learning through visual representations like diagrams, drawings, maps, etc). This means that
students are rather shy when it comes to speaking the target language. This derives from the point made earlier that they are afraid to make mistakes (Tsui, 1996 In Drame).


Throughout this study an attempt has been made to understand educational change in general and communicative language teaching as a change issue in a difficult context. Subsequently, the study has assessed the degree and the nature of resistance to CLT in these specific conditions. More thoroughly important sources of resistance as well as hindering factors have been identified and analyzed.
1. Stakeholders (school administrators, teachers, students, parents) oppose no resistance to communicative language teaching as such, but they fear its side effects make the students fall short of exams standards still designed upon traditional criteria (grammar, syntax, lexis );
2. With 61.36 % teachers believe that resistance to CLT relates to other sources than to CLT proper: system-bound obstacles: overcrowded classes, shortage of rooms, mismatch between teaching and testing principles and procedures, inappropriate instructional materials, inarticulate in-service programmes, students’ low motivation resulting from the status of English within the curricula.
3. Students like communicative methodology, but they prefer pair work (80 %) to group work (70.4 %), because of the side effects outlined earlier;
4. Students have significantly rejected bodily activities like drawing, improvising (58.4 %), dramatising (58.4 %), improvising (58.4 % ), singing songs (53.6 %), role-playing (52 %), certainly because they do not want to lose face through such engaging activities.

Drame, Mamadou. Resistance to communicative language teaching in a Foreign language context: a senegalese case study. English Department, FASTEF Université Cheikh Anta Diop Dakar,Senegal. Available online: fastef.ucad.sn/LIEN12/drame.pdf. September 27 2011
Ozsevik, Zekariya. (2010). The Use Of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT): Turkish EFL Teachers’ Perceived Difficulties In Implementing CLT In Turke. Thesis. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Savignon, J. Sandra.2002. Interpreting Communicative Language Teaching. Yale University Press New Haven and London.
Shengx, L. Second/Foreign Language Teaching Methodologies. Available online: english-e-corner.com

Yuan, Fang. (2011). A Brief Comment on Communicative Language Teaching. Huaiyin Normal University, Jiangsu, China

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Disclosures in applied theatrical performance in teaching is not current issues because many teachers do it in teaching learning process, but they do not realize it, so this paper appear merely to remember all the educators that the whole activities in teaching learning process have close relationship with the theatrical performance.
In many ways, a teacher is like a live-theatre actor. A teacher has an audience of students, and has to perform in front of and for (and in interaction with) that audience. So the teacher doing theatrically aspects theatrically is evident in terms like ‘studio’ and ‘lecture. The point towards the artifice of the theatre and to the idea of pretending to be what one is not (mimesis); however, they also mean simply to do, to act, to perform an action. The word ‘theatre’ comes from an ancient Greek word meaning ‘seeing place’, and it would be misleading to identify theatrical art purely with mimesis. In Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary theatre is building in which plays are performance. Perhaps even more fundamental to theatre than mimesis is the notion of embodiment: the sensuality, the actuality (act, action, actor, actuality) of live performance.(John Jacob: p1)
As Peter Brook in John Jacob article ((1968: p 1) wrote in The Empty Space, ‘I can take any empty space and call it a bare stage. A man walks across this empty space while someone else is watching him, and this is all that is needed for an act of theatre to be engaged.’ Theatre’s power as an educational tool derives both from its mimetic capacity and also from this actuality, this sensuality, this immediacy: the idea that the subject explored is not merely discussed, but embodied.
Theatre has always depicted psychological, social, political, philosophical and even religious problems. It is within its very nature to explore human and social issues and get audiences involved both with the aesthetic aspect of performances and with their ideological content. (De Berggel : 2009)
From the illustration above, the writer will present two principles points first the applied theatrical performance in teaching is very urgent! Secondly, why the applied theatrical performance is important in teaching?

1. The urgently of applied theatrical.
The arts approach in teaching learning strategies is urgent to apply by the teachers. as UNESCO intends to motivate the promotion of the teaching and learning process of the Art and of the Theatre, aiming the development of children, youths and adults creativity and the appreciation of the cultural and artistic goods.
Because “On the pedagogical perspective, Theatre and Drama are terms used in different cultures with the same conceptual meaning. Drama/Theatre is an area of acquisition and construction of knowledge in school. It should be present in the school curriculum attributing to it the same importance as the other areas of knowledge. In early childhood and primary education, Drama/Theatre should be part of the area of knowledge "arts", along with Dance, Music and visual arts, in an integrated and interdisciplinary program.(UNESCO : 2001)
To develop activities on the Drama/Theatre teaching, it is recommended two models of teacher education, one with a "generalist" character, early childhood and primary education, the other "specialist", for the higher levels of primary school and secondary school.(UNESCO : 2001)
The generalist is pre-service or initial teaching education and, specialist is in- service, or continuing teaching education. Pre-service education, takes place before a teacher is certified to teach. In – service education may take place at any point in the career of a certified teacher.
The use of theatre principles and methods to design classroom activities, to train teachers to become better communicators or as a theoretical background to teaching appears as a clearer manifestation of Applied Theatrical , mostly because in this type of application there is no theatre performance of a finished work before an audience and theatrical is used for purposes other than staging a theatre show or training learners in theatrical arts, but if we were to take this application as the only one, we would be severely restricting the scope of Applied Theatrical.
Playing roles as an actor, a critic, or a character in classroom theatre, the children understand the disciplines of dramatic expression and the nature of theatrical interpretation. In Brazil, the “Art and ICT Resource Project” for fifteen to eighteen year old students shows that to learn other ways of making works of art through a computer stimulates students’ artistic skills.(Kaori : 2003)

2. The Important of Theatrical
The teacher is regarded as a facilitator, a consultant and a leader rather than an instructor or lecturer. The “jug and mug” metaphor, which purported that the student was an empty mug that the tutor had to fill with knowledge, has been set aside in favor of views of learning which consider the learner’s previous experience as the foundation for the acquisition of more knowledge. It is widely accepted that this acquisition will take place within the context of social interaction and that the learner is not just a brain, but a person whose feelings, principles, convictions and emotions also have to be addressed for learning to be successful. We may say that teaching EFL has been inserted into the broader concept of educating in a foreign language, and that learners are considered whole persons and developed as such.
The teachers who carry out this foreign language education need, besides their professional skills as language tutors, the capability to
 Help in the development of their learners as whole persons, in physical, intellectual, ethical, artistic and social aspects.
 Provide an education in practical skills for work or study purposes.
 Favor creativity.
 Help learners in their adaptation to the social medium past and present by providing a link between the school and the socio-cultural environment, its culture, history and traditions.
In this concept of teaching and learning, traditional teacher education, with an emphasis on language and methodology, appears insufficient. Applied theatrical could well be the missing link, the discipline which would help in the exploration of cultural roots and offer the framework to construct meanings and model behaviour. It would also help teachers develop creativity and a deep understanding of the dramatic nature of human interaction.
There is nothing on the stage that is basically different from what we do in our daily life. The essential difference is that in our daily lives we don’t pay attention to the fact that we are using that language. The Theatre of the Oppressed tries to develop this capacity of everyone to use that language: first with the objective of trying to discover what oppressions we are suffering; second, to create a space in which to rehearse ways and means of fighting against those oppressions; third, to extrapolate that into real life, so that we can become free. (Boal in Jacob 1996: 47)

As a conclusion there are many possible definitions of teaching, and we need to consider at least two of these here. A teacher can be a guide, leading students out into the world or into some part of it. From this perspective, a teacher is somewhat like the actor/presenter of ‘teaching play.’ the actors come out and address the audience: ‘We are about to tell you the story of a journey/An exploiter and two of the exploited are the travelers/Examine carefully the behavior of these people/Find it surprising though not unusual/Inexplicable, though normal/Incomprehensible, though it is the rule.’ Or a teacher can lead students on an inward journey of self-introduction.
Here the teacher is more like the mimetic actor, an actor so immersed in her or his role that the audience, too, becomes immersed. Either way, teachers are frequently revered, even idolized, by their students, much as performers tend to be revered by their audiences. The activity of teaching can, moreover, be even more easily identified with the activity of film or theatre directing than with acting. So the theatrical are very urgent and important to applied in teaching learning process.

De Bergel, Rozzi María Ana.(2009). Disclosures in Applied Drama, Available Online < http://materialsdesign.pbworks.com/.../DISCLOSURES+IN+APPLIED+DRAMA>(Accessed 18 September 2011)
Griggs, Tom. (2001). Teaching as Acting : Considering acting as epistemology and its uses in teaching and teacher preparation. Available Online .[accessed 18 September 2011]
Iwai, Kaori. (2003). The contribution of arts education to children’s live Available Online < http://portal.unesco.org/.../12669211823contribution.../contribution%2BAE.pdf> (Accessed 18 September 2011)
Jacob, John. Teaching and Live Performance Applied Theater In Universities and School. Available Online < http://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/.../07-Jacobs-FINAL.pdf> Accessed 18 September 2011)
Manser, H. Martin. (1996). Oxford Learner’s pocket dictionary. Oxford University press.
UNESCO. (2003). Arts Education in Latin America and Caribbean. University of Uberaba. Available Online < http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/files/18561/...pdf/133377e.pdf>(Accesed 18 September 2011)

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